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MAGnesium, a MAGic mineral
12 Dec 2022
The scientific literature provides extensive evidence of widespread magnesium deficiency and the potential need for magnesium repletion in diverse medical conditions. Magnesium is an essential element required as a cofactor for over 300 enzymatic reactions that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation, and is thus necessary for the biochemical functioning of numerous metabolic pathways.

The scientific literature provides extensive evidence of widespread magnesium deficiency and the potential need for magnesium repletion in diverse medical conditions. Magnesium is an essential element required as a cofactor for over 300 enzymatic reactions that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation, and is thus necessary for the biochemical functioning of numerous metabolic pathways.

Emerging evidence confirms that nearly two-thirds of the population in the western world is not achieving the recommended daily allowance for magnesium, a deficiency problem contributing to various health conditions.

Magnesium also plays a role in the active transport of calcium and potassium ions across cell membranes, which is essential to nerve impulse conduction, muscle contraction, and normal heart rhythm.

Natural sources of Magnesium:

Sources of magnesium

  • Dark Chocolate: about 64 mg in 28 g
  • Avocado: about 58 mg in 1 medium size   
  • Nuts: about 64 mg in 28 g cashews
  • Legumes: about 120 mg in 1 cup (170 g) cooked black beans
  • Tofu: about 53 mg in 100 g

Several additional foods are rich in Magnesium as Bananas, Fatty Fish, Whole grains and Leafy Greens.

"However, it is really impossible to receive a required daily dose of Magnesium from food only and usage of dietary supplements or fortified food required avoiding Magnesium deficiency and associated with it health problems"

Recommended Dietary Values (RDAs) for:     

  • Magnesium is 420 mg
  • Potassium is 4700 mg

Most of the people in Western world are aware regarding importance of Calcium intake, but still underestimate Magnesium importance for wellbeing.

There is an enormous amount of different types of Magnesium in the market used for supplementation. Positive List of EU Regulation DIRECTIVE 2002/46/EC disclose in ANNEX II Vitamin and mineral substances which may be used in the manufacture of food supplements:

Organic Magnesium Forms

Inorganic Magnesium Forms

Magnesium Acetate

Magnesium Glycerophosphate

Magnesium Carbonate

Magnesium L-Ascorbate

Magnesium Lactate

Magnesium Chloride

Magnesium Bisglycinate

Magnesium L-Lysinate

Magnesium Salts of Orthophosphoric Acid

Magnesium Salts of Citric Acid

Magnesium Malate

Magnesium Hydroxide

Magnesium Gluconate

Magnesium L-Pidolate

Magnesium Oxide

Magnesium Potassium Citrate

Magnesium Pyruvate

Magnesium Sulphate

Magnesium Succinate

Magnesium Taurate

 

 

How to choose best suitable Magnesium type?

Several most important factors to be considered:

  • Bioavailability
  • Taste profile
  • Side effects (diarrhea, interference with other ingredients, additional health benefits)
  • Solubility (very important for some applications, can be either advantage or disadvantage)
  • Magnesium content (cost effectiveness)

Magnesium in powder and capsules

Magnesium Bioavailability

There are 2 main types of salts, based on Anion nature – Organic and Inorganic. It is generally agreed that the bioavailability of Organic salts is much higher than the bioavailability of Inorganic salts. From the literature, it appears that the bioavailability of Organic Magnesium is higher than that of Inorganic Magnesium.
"Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide"
Lindberg, J.S., Zobitz, M.M., Poindexter, J.R., Pak, C.Y.C. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1990; 9; 48-55

The same study also states:
In vitro solubility showed that Magnesium oxide was only 43% soluble in simulated peak gastric acid secretion, while magnesium citrate was 86% soluble under these conditions.

On the other hand, organic Magnesium shows more or less the same bioavailability with some advantage for Magnesium Citrate.

Taste Profile: no need for further clarification as the issue is clear. Most of the Magnesium salts has their specific taste, which can cause rejection by the consumer. So standard practice of taste masking usually required. Only Citrate based salts have a NEUTRAL taste.

GBI Wide range of Magnesium products enable to answer ANY application:

Product

Mg content

Based on

Solubility

Taste profile

Application

Magnesium BisGlycinate Chelate

10%

Glycine

Soluble

Specific

Dietary Supplements Formulations

Magnesium Citrate Nonahydrate

11.5%

Citrate

Not soluble

Neutral

Formulations

Magnesium Citrate M5

11.5%

Citrate

Not soluble

Neutral

Dairy

Magnesium Citrate Anhydrous

15.5 %

Citrate

Soluble

Neutral

Tablets, solutions

Magnesium Citrate DC

14.5%

Citrate

Not soluble

Neutral

Tablets

GadoMag +

12 %

Citrate

Soluble

Slightly acidic

solutions

GadoMag K

10%

Citrate

Dispersable

Neutral

Dairy, Sport Nutrition

Mg Citrate Formulations

Varies

Citrate

NA

NA

Granulated formulations for Tablets production

Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate

13.5%

Phosphate

Not soluble

chalky

Infant formulas, dairy

Magnesium Gluconate

5.5%

Gluconate

Soluble

Specific

Soluble applications

Besides common Magnesium salts, as disclosed above, Gadot developed a superior type of Magnesium Potassium Citrate – GadoMag K.

What differs it from regular Magnesium Salts?

  • GadoMag K – Magnesium Potassium Citrate with equal ratio of Mg and K
  • The Most palatable Mg and Potassium salt, absolutely neutral taste profile
  • The same High bioavailability as Magnesium Citrate and Potassium Citrate (Pak, The Journal of Urology Volume 145, Issue 2, February 1991, Pages 330-334 ), no compromises
  • Perfect dispersability, enabling easy usage for ready to drink powders
  • Perfect suitability for Mg fortification of Dairy and Milk Analogues without compromise in their stability and taste profile
  • Capable to pass UHT treatment without sedimentation during 1 year in dairy and milk analogues
  • Renal stones formation prevention (Pak et al, Journal of Urology (2007), 177(6) 2179-2184.)

Author:

MICHAEL PAIKIN
Chief Technologist

Israel
usa
europe

Gadot Biochemical Industries Ltd.
117 Hahistadrut Ave.
P.O. Box 10636
Haifa Bay 2629213, Israel

+972-4-8461555

Gadot Biochemical Industries, Ltd.

1 Meadow Rd., Suite 205

Florida, NY 10921

+1 847 419-7750

Gadot Bio-Chem (Europe)
BV Europe Hoefsmidstraat 41
3194 AA Hoogvliet The Netherlands

+972 54-656-9978
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