The scientific literature provides extensive evidence of widespread magnesium deficiency and the potential need for magnesium repletion in diverse medical conditions. Magnesium is an essential element required as a cofactor for over 300 enzymatic reactions that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation, and is thus necessary for the biochemical functioning of numerous metabolic pathways.
Emerging evidence confirms that nearly two-thirds of the population in the western world is not achieving the recommended daily allowance for magnesium, a deficiency problem contributing to various health conditions.
Magnesium also plays a role in the active transport of calcium and potassium ions across cell membranes, which is essential to nerve impulse conduction, muscle contraction, and normal heart rhythm.
Several additional foods are rich in Magnesium as Bananas, Fatty Fish, Whole grains and Leafy Greens.
There is an enormous amount of different types of Magnesium in the market used for supplementation. Positive List of EU Regulation DIRECTIVE 2002/46/EC disclose in ANNEX II Vitamin and mineral substances which may be used in the manufacture of food supplements:
Organic Magnesium Forms
Inorganic Magnesium Forms
Magnesium Salts of Orthophosphoric Acid
Magnesium Salts of Citric Acid
Magnesium Potassium Citrate
Several most important factors to be considered:
There are 2 main types of salts, based on Anion nature – Organic and Inorganic. It is generally agreed that the bioavailability of Organic salts is much higher than the bioavailability of Inorganic salts. From the literature, it appears that the bioavailability of Organic Magnesium is higher than that of Inorganic Magnesium.
"Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide"
Lindberg, J.S., Zobitz, M.M., Poindexter, J.R., Pak, C.Y.C. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1990; 9; 48-55
The same study also states:
In vitro solubility showed that Magnesium oxide was only 43% soluble in simulated peak gastric acid secretion, while magnesium citrate was 86% soluble under these conditions.
On the other hand, organic Magnesium shows more or less the same bioavailability with some advantage for Magnesium Citrate.
Taste Profile: no need for further clarification as the issue is clear. Most of the Magnesium salts has their specific taste, which can cause rejection by the consumer. So standard practice of taste masking usually required. Only Citrate based salts have a NEUTRAL taste.
Dietary Supplements Formulations
Magnesium Citrate Nonahydrate
Magnesium Citrate M5
Magnesium Citrate Anhydrous
Magnesium Citrate DC
Dairy, Sport Nutrition
Mg Citrate Formulations
Granulated formulations for Tablets production
Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate
Infant formulas, dairy